Reflections on Practice
This page offers some reflections on practice from various teachers who are associated with The Mountain Hermitage, including Marcia Rose, Sayadaw Vivekananda, Annie Nugent, Venerable Dhammadinna, Andrea Fella, Greg Scharf, Jean Smith, Gina Sharpe, Winnie Nazarko, Sean Murphy, Wynn Fricke, Nikki Mirghafori, Joseph Goldstein, John Stanley, David Loy, Brian Lesage, and Larry Yang.
By David Loy
Ecodharma is a relatively new word, & its meaning is by no means fixed. The term combines the teachings of Buddhism & related spiritual traditions (dharma) with ecological concerns (eco). More specifically, ecodharma can be understood as a new development in contemporary Buddhism that responds to the ecological crisis threatening civilization as we know it.
That is still quite general, of course. So let me say a few words about my understanding of ecodharma & why it is increasingly important to practice.
Three components of ecodharma stand out for me: practicing in nature, clarifying the ecological implications of Buddhism, & using that understanding to engage in the ecoactivism that the survival of our species calls for.
After the future Buddha left home, he lived in the forest, meditated in nature, & awakened under a tree. When Mara (the Buddhist devil) questioned his enlightenment, he touched the earth as witness to his realization. After that, the Buddha mostly lived & taught in the natural world, & when he eventually died, that, too, happened beneath trees.
Today we have largely lost our connection with nature, living & practicing in four-cornered buildings. But there is something special & precious about meditating outside & rediscovering our deep connection with the natural world. When we do, it becomes more evident to us that the world is not a collection of separate things but a confluence of natural processes that include us.
“We are here to overcome the illusion of our separation,” Vietnamese Zen master & poet Thich Nhat Hanh has said. Traditional Buddhist teachings help us to wake up individually & realize that we are not separate from other people & the rest of the world. And while the ecological crisis is a new challenge, many of those classic teachings are relevant to our situation. There seem to be important parallels, for example, between our usual individual predicament—our sense of separation from others—& our collective sense of separation from the natural world today. Is our ecological situation a larger version of the same problem? In both cases the separation between a self “inside” & the world “outside” is uncomfortable: a self that doesn’t really exist can never secure itself. Yet we keep trying, often in ways that just make things worse. We don’t need to “return to nature” but to realize that we’ve always been a part of it, & what that means for how we live. Eihei Dogen, who founded the Soto Zen school in the 13th century, described his own enlightenment as clearly realizing the “mind is nothing other than rivers & mountains & the great wide earth, the sun & the moon & the stars.”
Today we are called upon to live as bodhisattvas (or “ecosattvas”) who realize that activism in defense of the earth is an essential part of the spiritual path. Our now-global civilization has institutionalized greed & exploitation of the natural world, deferring the environmental costs of fossil fuels & unrestrained consumption to the future—a future that is now upon us. We need to plan & work together in order to promote what Joanna Macy & others call “the Great Turning”—a way forward that emphasizes a “life-sustaining civilization” in the wake of industrial, economic, & political destruction.
At different times practitioners may emphasize some of these components of ecodharma more than others, but all three are important. Then we can ask & plan together: what does it mean to be a bodhisattva today? How can we contribute to the healing of the earth, including the healing of our collective relationship with the earth?
By Marcia Rose
“Though I do not believe that a plant will spring up
where no seed has been, I have great faith in a seed.
Convince me that you have a seed there,
and I am prepared to expect wonders.”
Henry David Thoreau
I’ve been growing vegetables & flowers for many years, & still every Spring I experience a sense of awe & faith when I observe the tiny seeds in my hand as I carefully put them into the ground… AWE in relationship to the mystery that these tiny dots do what they do & FAITH based in years of experience that at least most of them will eventually burst out of their tiny tight selves & grow into lettuce, squash, tomatoes & sunflowers…etc.
So here I am this spring considering FAITH. What is it? Where does it come from? How does it work? What is its role in relationship to the teachings & practices as taught by the Buddha? Is there a difference between FAITH & BELIEF… & if so, what is the difference? FAITH in what… in who?
FAITH is one of the ‘wholesome & beautiful mental factors‘ that develop & blossom through our Dharma practices of concentration & mindfulness. It is also the first of the five spiritual powers that strengthen & blossom with diligent practice. The other four being: effort/energy, mindfulness, concentration & wisdom.
So one aspect of FAITH is that it’s a wholesome power. It’s a strength.
The Pali word for FAITH is saddha. There’s no one word in English that can render the full meaning of saddha. It encompasses trust, confidence, courage, strength, devotion & clarity. The literal translation of saddha is “to place the heart upon,” connecting from the heart, offering or giving over one’s heart. My Israeli students tell me that the root of the word FAITH in Hebrew is a verb. It’s not something that we have, but rather something that we do.
So, another aspect of FAITH is that it’s a verb, an action. We are willing to take the next step, willing to open to the unknown, to see & know our practice as an adventure… ‘to place one’s heart upon.’
The Buddha Dharma understands three levels of faith…the first being Blind Faith. We encounter something or someone that inspires us & we feel a brightness & maybe also devotion & love in those moments. This faith is often based in dependence on someone or something outside of ourselves to make us feel good. Consequently, it’s not sustainable & may not be rooted in wisdom.
The second level of FAITH is Verified Faith which is rooted in confidence born of our own clear observation, investigation, wise reflection & the discriminating wisdom that arises out of our direct & focused mindful attention in relationship to our experiences of our body, mind & heart.
The third level of FAITH is the great power of Unshakable Faith which is rooted in Verified Faith. As we continue developing a meditation practice that evolves towards the blossoming of deepening concentration, clear mindful awareness & understanding/insight, we begin to touch an unfettered FAITH in the incredibly vast potential of understanding that is available via our spiritual path. Unshakable Faith is rooted in staying open & connected in the experience of the moment… open to the mystery/the truth beyond the realm of our often tightly clung to conditioned habituated ideas, opinions, beliefs, interpretations & feelings.
As we travel this path, we must rely on FAITH, not on BELIEF. In meeting & honing into our experience with a set of beliefs, we will quite likely ‘re-act‘ our learned, habituated patterns of thinking, feeling & acting again & again.
So, FAITH as willingness, confidence & trust in our own potential for ‘waking up,’ based on experience not on beliefs… ‘waking up‘ out of ongoing dissatisfaction, out of feeling incomplete, separate & disappointed… ‘waking up‘ from delusion & craving. Saddha moves us towards learning to live our life grounded in an open & kindhearted mindful presence. FAITH affords us the possibility of ‘waking up‘ into the spaciousness of openhearted presence & ease of being with things as they are, however they are inside us & outside us & being able to respond appropriately with the great vitality of wisdom & compassion.
As we gently & patiently hold the seeds of the Buddha’s teaching in our heart, they develop & blossom into beautiful & liberating fruit through our diligent practice.
By Gina Sharpe
The fourth precept is to refrain from false, harmful & reckless speech. Speech is a primary way in which we relate to & communicate with each other. It can enhance connection, or be the agent of disconnection. In expressing our intentions & aspirations, our words, mindfully spoken, can remind us of what we hold most dear.
This precept is perhaps the most difficult to undertake, as it is truly a moment to moment, constant practice as we navigate & speak into our myriad relationships. It takes presence to notice the impulse to speak & before uttering, to pause, ask whether it is kind, true, necessary, useful & timely. What would the world be like if everyone practiced in this way? Imagine friends, family, even politicians, all practicing together, then decide how you want to speak.
Why do we lie? Perhaps to aggrandize our sense of self-importance, or to avoid the consequences of our actions. Of course, it simply overlays untrustworthiness on a difficult truth. Yet, honest speech without compassion can have the seductive power of self-righteousness & be cruel. We see how subtle & nuanced this practice is.
Implicit in refraining from speech that is untrue, harsh, useless or judgmental, is our ability to see intention. We can pause & consider before we speak, uttering what is based on loving kindness, truth, helpfulness & timeliness. Imagine how this will save energy for other endeavors!
It takes discipline, kindness & mindfulness.
Yes Ma’am, how can I help you?
Well, after much consideration, I’ve decided to install Love. Can you guide me through the process?
Yes I can help you. Are you ready to proceed?
Well, I’m not very technical, but I think I’m ready.
What do I do first?
The first step is to open your heart.
Have you located your heart, Ma’am?
Yes, but there are several other programs running now.
Is it okay to install Love while they are running?
What programs are running Ma’am?
Let’s see, I have past-hurt, low self-esteem, grudge & resentment running right now.
No problem, Love will gradually erase past-hurt from your current operating system. It may remain in your permanent memory, but it will no longer disrupt other programs. Love will eventually override low self-esteem with a module of it’s own called high self-esteem. However, you have to completely turn off grudge & resentment. Those programs prevent Love from being properly installed. Can you turn those off Ma’am?
I don’t know how to turn them off. Can you tell me how?
With pleasure. Go to your start menu & invoke forgiveness. Do this as many times as necessary until grudge & resentment have completely erased.
Okay done, Love has started installing itself. Is that normal?
Yes, but remember that you have only the base program. You need to begin connecting to other hearts in order to get the upgrades.
Oops! I have an error message already. It says, “Error-program not run on external components.”
What should I do?
Don’t worry, Ma’am, It means the Love program is setup to run on internal hearts but has not yet been run on your heart. In nontechnical terms, it means you have to Love yourself before you can Love others.
So what should I do?
Can you pull down Self-acceptance; then click on the following:
Realize your worth;
Acknowledge your limitations.
Now copy them to the “My Heart” directory. The system will overwrite any conflicting files & begin patching faulty programming. Also, you need to delete verbose self-criticism from all directories & empty your recycle bin to make sure it is completely gone & never comes back.
Got it. Hey!!! My Heart is filling up with new files. Smile is playing on my monitor & Peace & Contentment are copying themselves all over My Heart. Is this normal?
Sometimes. For others it takes a while, but eventually everything gets downloaded at the proper time.
So Love is installed & running. One more thing before we hang-up. Love is Freeware. Be sure to give it & its various modules to everyone you meet. They will in turn share it with others & return some cool modules back to you.
I promise to do just that.
“Thus, from the small area of mental activity, we have brought meditation to a vast field of consciousness, where it gets related to the way you sit or stand, the way you gesticulate or articulate throughout the day. Whether you want it or not, the inner state of your being gets expressed in your behaviour…” Vimala Thakar
Several years ago, we shared a another piece by Indian teacher & meditation master Vimala Thakar (1921-2009), a favorite of Hermitage Guiding Teacher Marcia Rose. Vimala was a powerful & very much sought after spiritual teacher during her lifetime. She is considered to be a teacher who expressed understanding & perfect balance between the enlightened heart/mind & social consciousness.
Silence is as much a substantial part of our lives to which we are not introduced. Motionlessness is a state of our being to which we are not introduced, The way we live, we go on collecting things on the material level, knowledge on the intellectual level, experience on the sensual & psychological level. We go on acquiring & the I, the Me, the Ego that goes on acquiring becomes stronger by every experience, with every achievement & we create an enclosure around us by our own knowledge, experience, possessions. In that enclosure we live & we feel secure in that. We live secluded, isolated from the Whole, because of the sense of possessions.
Meditation is a way of living that introduces us to that other part of our life. The silence, the motionlessness, it introduces us to our pure ISNESS which have never been conditioned & shall never be conditioned. […]
Meditation is coming home, to relax, to rest. If that takes place & one finds that though one has withdrawn & retired from activity, the inner movement goes on, thoughts come up, memories come up, then you begin to observe them. Till now you were busy carrying out functional roles, you were either the doer or the experience. From these two roles you have set yourself free voluntarily. You are now the observer. The inner movements come up, the involuntary movement comes up though the voluntary has been discontinued. You sit there quietly, you do not prepare to see, but if thoughts appear, then they are seen by you. It is a lovely state, the state of observation.
from “Meditation In Daily Life” For those who missed it last time, this is an interesting article on
Vimala’s life & work: Vimala Thakar: Liberation Beyond Gender by Elizabeth Debold
By Brian Lesage
Driving west from Winslow, Arizona, I see mountains lightly covered with snow in the distance. These mountains provide the context for my life here in Flagstaff & offer my heart a reminder of the vast & beautiful freedom possible on this Buddhist path. Nuva’tukya’ovi in Hopi & Dook’o’oos?ííd in Diné are just two native names for these mountains held sacred by thirteen different native tribes. Each tribe has its own history & stories interwoven into culture & language. More recent history & narrative of these peaks, however, also include names given by non-native settlers & remind me how far we still have to go to truly taste that vast & beautiful freedom.
While English translations of native names for the Peaks include “the summit which never melts,” “abalone shell mountain,” and “place of snow on the very top,” the English name for the most prominent peak is “Agassiz,” after Louis Agassiz. Agassiz was a zoologist/naturalist whose pseudo experiments promoted a harmful & violent racist narrative of African-Americans as a degenerate race. That naming & how it is still accepted & used in non-native culture, echoes a past fraught with deep impacts of racism & colonization.
These echoes surround me, not only in the political discourse of this country, but in the institutions & societal systems within which I find myself. And they echo even closer, residing within my own heart & mind. This mind of mine has been shaped by this society & culture. This mind’s thoughts & perceptions often unknowingly see the world through the clouded lens of racism & colonization.
How do we skillfully navigate echoes of racism & colonization that reverberate within our hearts & minds? The Buddha describes an activity of the mind which shapes the unfolding of moment-to-moment experience. This activity, called sankhara in Pali, refers to the action of constructing & fabricating, or to that which is constructed or fabricated. Sankaras usually reflect our ignorance of the societal patterns shaping our actions, thoughts & perceptions
We could say that the historical momentum of societal racism & colonization is a sankhara that shapes our thoughts & actions here & now. For example, let’s say that I see a human body which the mind perceives as being old or young, large or thin, and with brown, black or white skin. Societal sankharas, based on ignorance, can then give rise to thoughts about these humans as either appealing & worth noticing or, oppositely, render them invisible & less important. Skillfully working with this dynamic by noticing it with mindfulness & clear comprehension is both simple & complex. First developing the skill to recognize these sankharas as they arise, and to view them, with the light of mindfulness, as just a conditioned fabrication; and then setting the intention of noticing the “liking” or “not liking,” “seeing” or “not-seeing” as it arises, without guilt or critical self-judgement for having such thoughts or propensities, can begin to bring these societal sankharas into awareness & dispel our own tendencies to act on them.
As one of William Faulkner’s characters in his novel Requiem for a Nun famously says, “The past is never dead. It’s not even past.” Mindfulness meditation is not a way to forget or deny the past, but rather to skillfully navigate those echoes of racism & colonization still alive & active in this present moment. Understanding these conditioned propensities for what they are offers a possibility for the heart to truly touch & connect with the person right in front of us. This is the way to allow the vast & beautiful freedom that is embodied by Nuva’tukya’ovi to shine forth.
By Marcia Rose
Today I woke at 4:30 a.m. to attend our annual Solstice Tea Ceremony. We begin in the darkness of early morning with candle-light to help us find our way. Our Solstice celebration ended today, as it does each year, with clear morning light filling the room & our hearts. Sitting this evening, I experience a clear visceral sense that time is absolutely fluid & circular. Years, months, weeks, days, hours, moments, dark & light just keep rolling on no matter what.
In taking our cues from the obvious & more subtle rhythms of the natural world, we humans are now marking a repeating cycle, the ending & the beginning of a new year/a new cycle of this endless ‘rolling on’. Within this fluid frame of a year’s time, in this moment many of us may be engaging in some year-end, year-beginning reflection.
We might ask ourselves, “Has it been a good year? Has it been a difficult, challenging year? What am I grateful for? What do I want to relinquish? What heart/mind qualities do I want to cultivate?” Our reflection brings forth personal, intimate recollections… stories, images, pleasant & unpleasant feelings & various states of mind & body. Our reflection usually also brings to the surface some stories & images with associated pleasant & unpleasant feelings, including states of mind & body, relating to both broad themes & particular happenings in the world beyond our close, intimately experienced personal memories.
I find it quite amazing how, often unbeknownst to us, our heart/mind sorts through then sifts out much of the countless phenomena that we have encountered & experienced physically, intellectually, emotionally & spiritually through a year. This sifting process leaves us with what is ‘just a handful of leaves’ of all the billions of experiences that have passed through our body, mind & heart during this fluid frame of a year in time.
It’s deeply beneficial to recognize, accept & trust what shows up & not waste our energy looking for something else, something better, preferable, more satisfying. What shows up is just what we need for our practice. We take what’s offered & then without manipulation or editorial commentary, but with a heartfelt interest & care for our well-being, we intimately, mindfully notice, ‘What is my relationship in this very moment to this or that reflected experience?’
Our reflective practice is to take an interest & learn to notice without judging ourselves. This is the ground, the ambiance needed for illumination & for our heart’s release from the swirling eddies of contraction that we get caught in.
And so we notice without judgment & without clinging: Am I reacting/re-acting in relationship to this remembered experience? Is there contraction? Is there tightening, resistance, heat, coldness, numbness or stiffness physically & emotionally? Or, am I responding… able to respond/be responsible… with an open heart & mind sensing, clearly seeing & knowing this past remembrance, while at the same time letting the story, the image, the mental & physical states… letting the memory pass on through?
We can learn to be truly caring & patient with ourselves in our reflective practice as this new cycle/this new year unfolds. We can learn to be responsive rather than reactive. This is a most essential & important aspect of our practice. This is what allows spaciousness, understanding & intuitive wisdom to naturally blossom. This is how we learn to receive the light that we yearn for to fill our heart & mind… the light that is always available, forever nearby. This is our practice.
“The birds they sang
at the break of day
I heard them say
Don’t dwell on what
has passed away
or what is yet to be
Ring the bells that still can ring
Forget your perfect offering
There is a crack in everything
That’s how the light gets in.”
From “ANTHEM” by Leonard Cohen
For almost a year now, I’ve noticed an underlying anxiety, a feeling of being off balance, craving to read the news more than I ever did before. There is a thread of fear stitched into our country, and I feel it, for we aren’t separate from our surroundings. In the midst of summer, there’s a chill in my heart. I’m grateful for the teachings & practice of mindfulness, calm, and equanimity.
What gives rise to the peace of mindfulness? The ancient texts tell us: mindfulness produces mindfulness. What we do with our minds right now conditions the next moment. How we breathe, how we pay attention to what arises in & around us, how we love… What are we doing moment to moment? We’re practicing something all the time. Are we practicing being aware? How are we actually spending the moments we have in this heart-breakingly unsafe, exquisite, magnificent life?
Flannery O’Connor wrote, “Faith comes & goes. It rises & falls like the tides of an invisible ocean. If it’s presumptuous to think that faith will stay with you forever, it’s just as presumptuous to think that unbelief will.” My Korean Zen teacher always encouraged us to “Believe in yourself!” With great humor & intensity, he asked us to have confidence in our minds, to believe in the stability & wisdom of awareness itself, our “not-moving mind.” His definition of faith was trust in awareness, our ability to see clearly.
Even so, sometimes what we see frightens & upsets us. We know our trust, confidence, faith will waver. When we’re mindful, we can see: wavering is both as real & ephemeral as trusting. Like all experiences, they appear & disappear. The skill is being willing to step back & observe the heart’s inevitable movement back & forth, in & out of fear & faltering, with as much kind, understanding awareness as we can summon.
This is how we learn to meet the inevitable ebb & flow of confidence with the “not-moving mind”. Sorrows, fears, joys, perceptions move — who watches & stays still? Awareness & presence are always here when we look deeply. This is how we cultivate mindfulness & compassion with all the insecurity of life. Practice means learning to recognize & support the courage, capacity, and strength already present in us. And mindfulness means remembering to look, again & again. “Believe in yourself!”
By Marcia Rose
It’s Autumn. Time for harvesting, and time to prune back & clear out all that has concluded its innate cycle of flowering & fruiting. It’s also time to replant the edibles that fare well in cooling temperatures, so that my home grown nurturance continues on into late Fall. Replanting is a practice of metta for myself, by which I mean taking care of myself wisely & happily… though not necessarily so easily these days because of the physical labor involved.
And of course, early Autumn brings the great joy of imbibing the wholesome & tasty nurturance that harvest season offers. This evening for dinner, I sauteed four different vegetables, picked just moments before from the garden, then poured three local eggs on top & allowed it all to simmer slowly. Joy is an essential aspect of our practice. Without it liberation remains at bay.
As I come towards the end of my 77th year of life, the work of growing food & flowers has evolved more & more into a deep & sometimes even a profound aspect of my Dhamma practice. One piece of this has been my decision to grow two crops for my ‘old age‘…. planting two crops that will return on their own year after year. Now I will have asparagus & strawberries to eat, even when I’m not up to the work of planting food each year. So yes, acknowledging & accepting in a deep way that I’m getting to be an old woman, and responding to this inevitability by planting a part of my garden for my nurturance in old age.
This year I have asked myself, ‘What is the Dhamma of a flower?‘ Is it not the same as it is for you & me? The poppies this season were particularly magnificent. These exquisite blossoms live just briefly. One must take them into the heart fully when they are in bloom, because they return to the earth in moments, it seems. This in turn offers nurturance, first for the heart/mind & then to the soil, and also a deep practice in relinquishing any clinging to the uplift & delight we experience in the presence of great beauty. I found myself observing each of the mammoth red poppies many times during the day or two that it offered up its vibrant & amazing beauty. For soon this fleeting beauty would be followed by that flower losing its brilliant color, its shape slowly collapsing & crumbling into itself & then falling petal by petal to the ground.
Each year, I experience awe & great respect for this practice of Dhamma gardening, as I receive its ever new & deepening Dhamma truths & fruits with heartful gratitude.
“Let us adopt a lifestyle that emphasizes contentment, because the cost to the planet & humanity
of ever-increasing ‘standards of living’ is simply too great.”
It is difficult to fully comprehend great environmental changes like global warming. We know that carbon dioxide levels are rising dangerously in the atmosphere leading to unprecedented increases in the average temperature of the planet… Human activity everywhere is hastening to destroy key elements of the natural ecosystems all living beings depend on. These threatening developments are drastic & shocking. It is hard to imagine all this actually happening in our lifetime, and in the lives of our children. We must deal with the prospect of global suffering & environmental degradation unlike anything in human history.
If we can begin to act with genuine compassion for all, we still have a window of opportunity to protect each other & our natural environment. This will be far easier than having to adapt to the severe & unimaginable environmental conditions projected for a “hothouse” climate. On close examination, the human mind, the human heart & the human environment are inseparably linked together. We must recognize we have brought about a climate emergency in order to generate the understanding & higher purpose we need now. On this basis we can create a viable future – sustainable, lasting, peaceful co-existence.
Ignorance of interdependence has harmed not only the natural environment, but human society as well. We have misplaced much of our energy in self-centered material consumption, neglecting to foster the most basic human needs of love, kindness & cooperation. This is very sad. We have to consider what we human beings really are. We are not machine-made objects. It is a mistake to seek fulfillment solely in external “development.”
This blue planet of ours is a delightful habitat. Its life is our life; its future is our future. The Earth, indeed, acts like a mother to us all. Like children, we are dependent onher. In the face of such global problems as the climate emergency, individual organizations & single nations are helpless. Unless we all work together, no solution can be found. Our Mother Earth is now teaching us a critical evolutionary lesson – a lesson in universal responsibility. On it depends the survival of millions of species, even our own.
The destruction of nature & natural resources results from ignorance, greed & lack of respect for the Earth’s living things. Future human generations will inherit a vastly degraded planet if destruction of the natural environment continues at the present rate. Our ancestors viewed the Earth as rich & bountiful. They saw nature as inexhaustible. Now we know this is the case only if we care for it. It has become an urgent necessity to ethically re-examine what we have inherited, what we are responsible for, and what we will pass on to coming generations. We ourselves are the pivotal human generation… We must take the initiative to repair & protect this world,ensuring a safe-climate future for all people & all species.
* You can view full article in a 2009 issue of the Shambala Sun. It originally appeared in the book “Climate Emergency” edited by John Stanley, David R. Loy & Gyurme Dorje.
* The Dalai Lama was the first to sign the Buddhist Declaration on Climate Change.
* View an hour-long video of His Holiness speaking about the impact of climate change at University of California San Diego conference.